course, it's desirable to have a full range of audio and video
equipment to work with
-- either personal equipment or equipment provided in a school
or lab setting.
However, some equipment
referenced in these modules may not be available to you. That's okay,
it's important to understand the equipment and techniques that are part
of larger production facilities.
For one thing, you may suddenly be
confronted with an internship or job opportunity where this knowledge
is essential. Or, you could easily be asked about some of these things
in a job interview.
Camerapersons, writers, directors,
producers, and even on-camera talent find that having a solid
understanding of the tools and techniques of the entire process makes a
major difference in the success of productions -- not to mention their
In television production, as in most of today's high-tech areas, knowledge is power.
Enough of the sales pitch. Let's get down to business.
A Bird's Eye View of the
take a whirlwind tour of the production process. But unlike
a whirlwind tour of Europe (if it's Tuesday, this must be Barcelona),
we'll come back to these people and places later. For now, let's
take a quick look at the production process from the standpoint
of the key people.
We'll start by thinking big -- big productions, that is -- because
these things can be scaled down, combined, or eliminated in smaller productions.
Who Does What and Why
list is long, but have you noticed the lengthy credit lists
for major films and TV programs?
Although titles and responsibilities can vary, the person in charge of launching
and guiding the entire production is generally the producer.
A term you will also encounter in major TV series
for this role is
executive producer or showrunner.
Although there are various types of producers -- some TV
series have been known to list twenty or more in the opening
credits -- for our
purposes we'll stick with the most basic definition of producer.
This person generally comes up with the program concept, lays out the budget, and makes the major decisions.
He or she is the team leader, the one who
works with the writers, hires the director, decides on the key talent,
and guides the general direction of the production.
In smaller productions the producer may also take charge of the more mundane activities. And in small productions the director may handle the producer's responsibilities. In this case, the combined job title becomes (want to guess?), ▲producer-director.
On a major production, one of the producer's first jobs is to hire or assign a writer to write the script (the document that tells everyone what to do and say). The script is like a written plan or blueprint for the production.
The producer will
next consider the key talent for the
production. In general, the talent includes actors, reporters,
hosts, guests, and off-camera narrators -- anyone whose voice
is heard or who appears on camera.
talent is broken down into three sub-categories: actors
(who portray other people in dramatic productions), performers
(who appear on camera in nondramatic roles), and announcers
(who are heard but generally don't appear on camera).
In a large production, the producer will hire or assign the director.
The director is
generally in charge of working out preproduction
(before the production) details, coordinating the activities of the
production staff and on-camera talent, working out camera and talent
positions on the set, selecting the camera shots during production, and
supervising postproduction (after production) work.
In other words, once the producer sets
things in motion, the director is in charge of taking the script from
the beginning to the very end of the production process.
Assisting a director
in the control room is typically a technical
director who operates the video switcher. (An
elaborate version is shown on the right.)
The technical director, or TD, is also responsible for coordinating the technical aspects of the production.
One or more production assistants (PAs) may be hired to help the producer and director. Among other things, PAs keep notes on ongoing production needs and changes.
The lighting director (LD) designs the lighting plan, arranges for the lighting equipment, and sets up and checks the lighting.
As we'll see, lighting is a key element in the overall look of a production.
Some productions have a set designer who, along with the producer and director, designs the set and supervises its construction, painting, and installation.
The makeup person,
with the help of cosmetics, hair spray, etc., sees that the talent look
their best -- or their worst, if that's what the script calls for.
Makeup is just one of the areas where
the link indicated will take you to advanced information. (We discuss the meaning of the colored squares below).
It should be emphasized that specific
responsibilities of production personnel will vary widely, depending on
the production facility. In Europe, and in particular at the BBC
(British Broadcasting Corporation) in London, these distinctions are made.
Before you move on to Part Two of this module, let me call your attention to some things:
First, you'll notice the Site Search / Key Terms link at the end of each module. This link is useful in finding terms and phrases anywhere on the site.
Links will also take you to about 100
associated files intended to add to the basic information presented in
these modules. (The makeup link above is an example.)
For further readings on any topic click on
the link at the bottom of each module for a bibliography of additional
readings (the hardcopy type).
For important background information on the television medium, check out the series of modules starting here.
After you visit any of
these links, you can either close the window that pops up or click on
the back arrow at the top of your browser.
The "Quick Quiz" button at
the end of each chapter takes you to a very short interactive matching
game that acts as a review of some of the major concepts in the chapter
(and checks to see if you really were awake while you were reading it!).
Green, Yellow, Blue, and Red Readings
now to explain those little colored squares before most links.
A green square ( ) in front of a link indicates information that's important to what's being discussed.
We cover this information in the interactive tests and puzzles. Linked
information within these readings is not covered in the tests.
A yellow square ( ) indicates helpful background reading. This material is not included on the interactive tests, but instructors may include the readings on their own tests.
A blue square ( ) indicates technical information designed for advanced classes and professionals.
Again, this material may or may not be required by an instructor (assuming you are in a classroom setting).
A red square ( ) indicates external links
with related information not included on the interactive tests -- but
your instructor has the option of asking that you read this
information. We have no control over the content of these external
( ▲ ) A black triangle indicates
pop-up information directly related to the discussion. Just mouse-over
the link that follows the symbol.
(Click on "more" for the second half of this section.)